Schematics of the components and the working principles of an artificial detrusor
 (a) Schematics of the thermoresponsive property of TRH.  (b) A balloon-like TRH membrane (with a thickness of 1 mm) and an acrylic tube(with an inner diameter of 50 mm) provide hydraulic pressure. The balloon-shaped TRH membrane during its c) equilibrium state (27 °C), d) inflated state (27 °C), and e) actuated state (42 °C)
 Cross-sections of the hydrogel membrane at different states in the experiment: a) the reference state, b) the preparation state, c) the equilib-rium state, d) the pressurized state, e) the actuated state. f) Predicted and tested relationships between the inner pressure of the hydrogel balloon andthe ambient temperature. g) Radial stretch and h) circumferential stretch of the hydrogel membrane at 27 °C (300 °K) and 47 °C (320 °K)
 a) Fabrication process of the multilayered structure. b) The wrinkled “shower cap” structure of the artificial detrusor with surgical suture thread and silk scaffold. c) The balloon-shaped artificial bladder. d) The artificial detrusor wraps and attaches on the artificial bladder. e–g) The operation procedure of the artificial detrusor
 a–f) The artificial detrusor and the inner pressure of bladder at various temperatures (thickness of hydrogel membrane is about 0.5 mm, and the diameter of the artificial bladder is 40 mm)
 Fabrication process to integrate the flexible heaters into the artificial detrusor. Wireless control and communication of the artificial detrusor with Arduino chip and smart cell phone
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