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 (a) The fabrication procedure and the scar-like structure of the AgNWs-DEA. (b)The image of AgNWs-CDEA during fabrication. The (c) SEM and (d) optical top view images of AgNWs’ microstructure on the AgNWs-CDEA.
 The AgNWs-CDEA in (a) the reference state and (b) the actuated state with multiple electric breakdown failures. (c) The electric breakdown failures at various voltages on the DE membrane. (d) The voltage-area strain relations of the AgNWs-CDEA. The AgNWs-CDEA in (e) the reference state and (f) the actuated state with a punctured needle. (g) The scar-like structure near the punctured needle on the DE membrane (view with a tilted angle). (h) The voltage-area strain relation of the punctured AgNWs-CDEA. The AgNWs-UFDEA in (i) the reference state and (j) the actuated state with a punctured hole. (k) The scar-like structure near the punctured hole on the DE membrane. (l) The voltage-output force relations of the punctured AgNWs-UFDEA.
SEM Images
The FEM Simulations Results
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